Alexander of Macedon’s Oath at Opis, 324 BC



“Now that the war is finished, I wish you all to live happily with the peace.


All mortals from now and on will live like one nation, united for a common prosperity. You should regard the ecumenical country with common laws, which must governed by the virtues, irrespective of race.


I do not divide human beings as the narrow-minded people do, for in Hellenes and foreigners (barbarians). It does not interest me the origin of each citizens, neither the race that were born from. I apportion them all with only one criterion, virtue. For me, any good foreigner is a Hellene, and any bad Hellene is worse than a barbarian.


If any difference appears amongst you, do not take refuge to weapons, but try to solve them peacefully. If need be, I will act as your negotiator.


You must not consider God (Zeus-Ammon) as authoritarian ruler, but rather as a common father for all, so that your conduct together should be like brothers in a family.


From my part, I consider all equal white and brown people. Moreover, I wanted you not to be only law-abounded citizens to the state, but involving also as partners.


As much as my authority permits me, I will try to materialize what I have promised. The oath that we are given ceremonially here tonight should be held as a symbol of love.”


- Alexander III (The Great)